Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Adopted at eleventh Session of twentieth Supreme Council of the Republic od Uzbekistan on December 8, 1992

The present Costitution was amended in accordance with the Law of RU No. 989-XII dtd 28/12/1993, the Law of the RUz dtd 24.04.2003
Law of the RUz No. ZRU-89 dtd 11.04.2007

Preamble Part one.

Fundamental principles (Chapter 1-4) Part two. Basic human and civil rights, freedoms and duties (Chapter 5-11) Part three. Sosiety and the individual (Chapter 12-15) Part four. Administrative and territorial structure and state system (Chapter 16-17) Part five. Organization of state authority (Chapter 18-26) Part six. Procedure for amending the constitution

Preamble

The people of Uzbekistan, solemnly declaring their adherence to human rights and principles of state soverignty, aware of their ultimate responsibility to the present and the future generations, relying on historical experience in the development of Uzbek statehood, affirming their commitment to the ideals of democracy and social justice, recognizing priority of the generally accepted norms of the international law, aspiring to a worthy life for the citizens of the Republic, setting forth the task of creating a humane and democratic rule of law, aiming to ensure civil peace and national accord, represented by their plenipotentiary deputies adopt the present Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Part one. Fundamental principles

Chapter 1. State sovereignty
Chapter 2. Democracy
Chapter 3. Supremacy of the constitution and the Law
Chapter 4. Foreign policy

Chapter 1. State sovereignty

Article 1. Uzbekistan is a sovereign democratic republic. Both names of the state – the Republic of Uzbekistan and Uzbekistan – shall be equivalent.

Article 2. The state shall express the will of the people and serve their interests. State bodies and officials shall be accountable to the society and the citizens.

Article 3. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall determine its national-state and administrative-territorial structure, its structure of state authority and administration, and shall pursue independent home and foreign policies. The state frontier and the territory of Uzbekistan shall be inviolable and indivisible. Article

4. The state language of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be Uzbek. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall ensure a respectful attitude toward the languages, customs and traditions of all nationalities and ethnic groups living on its territory, and create the conditions necessary for their development.

Article 5. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have its state symbols – the flag, the emblem, and the anthem – sanctioned by the law. Article 6. The capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the city of Tashkent.

Chapter 2. Democracy

Article 7. The people are the sole source of state power. State power in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be exercised in the interests of the people and solely by the bodies empowered therefore by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the laws passed on its basis. Any seizure of powers belonging to state authority, suspension or termination of activity of the bodies of state authority contrary to the procedure prescribed by the Constitution, as well as the formation of any new or parallel bodies of state authority shall be regarded as unconstitutional and punishable by law. Article 8. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan, regardless of their nationality, constitute the people of Uzbekistan. Article 9. Major matters of public and state life shall be submitted for a nation-wide discussion and put to a direct vote of the people (a referendum). The procedure for holding referendums shall be specified by law. Article 10. The Oliy Majlis (Supreme Assembly) and President of the Republic, elected by the people, shall have the exclusive right to act on behalf of the people. No section of society, political party, public association, movement or individual shall have the right to act on behalf of the people of Uzbekistan. Article 11. The principle of the separation of powern between the legislative, executive and judicial authorities shall underlie the system of state authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 12. In the Republic of Uzbekistan, public life shall develop on the basis of a diversity of political institutions’ ideologies and opinions. No ideology shall be granted the status of state ideology. Article 13. Democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall rest on the principles common to all mankind, according to which the ultimate value is the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights. Democratic rights and freedoms shall be protected by the Constitution and the laws. Article 14. The state shall function on the principles of social justice and legality in the interests of the people and society.

Chapter 3. Supremacy of the constitution and the Law

Article 15. The Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have absolute supremacy in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state, its bodies, officials, public associations and citizens shall act in accordance with the Constitution and the laws. Article 16. None of the provisions of the present Constitution shall be interpreted in a way detrimental to the rights and interests of the Republic of Uzbekistan. None of the laws or normative legal acts shall run counter to the norms and principles established by the Constitution.

Chapter 4. Foreign policy

Article 17. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have full rights in international relations. Its foreign policy shall be based on the principles of sovereign equality of the states, non-use of force or threat of its use, inviolability of frontiers, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, and other universally recognized norms of international law. The Republic may form alliances, join or withdraw from unions and other inter-state organizations proceeding from the ultimate interests of the state and the people, their well-being and security.

Part two. Basic human and civil rights,
freedoms and duties

Chapter 5. General provisions Chapter 6. Citizenship Chapter 7. Personal rights and freedoms Chapter 8. Political rights Chapter 9. Economic and social rights Chapter 10. Guarantees of human rights and freedoms Chapter 11. Duties of citizens

Chapter 5. General provisions

Article 18. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shal have equal rights and freedoms, and shall be equal before the law, without discrimination by sex, race, nationality, language, religion, social origin, convictions,individual and social status. Any privileges may be granted solely by the law and shall conform to the principles of social justice. Article 19. Both citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the state shall be bound by mutual rights and mutual responsibility. Citizens’ rights and freedoms, established by the Constitution and the laws, shall be inalienable. No one shall have the power to deny a citizen his rights and freedoms, or to infringe on them except by the sentence of a court. Article 20. The exercise of rights and freedoms by a citizen shall not encroach on the lawful interests, rights and freedoms of other citizens, the state or society.

Chapter 6. Citizenship

Article 21. In the Republic of Uzbekistan, uniform citizenship shall be established throughout its territory. Citizenship in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be equal for all regardless of the grounds of its acquisition. Every citizen of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shal be a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The grounds and procedure for acquiring and forfeiting citizenship shall be defined by law. Article 22. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall guarantee legal protection to all its citizens both on the territory of the republic and abroad. Article 23. Foreign citizens and stateless persons, during their stay on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be guaranteed the rights and freedoms in accordance with the norms of international law. They shall perform the duties established by the Constitution, laws, and international agreements signed by the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Chapter 7. Personal rights and freedoms

Article 24. The right to exist is the inalienable right of every human being. Attempts on anyone’s life shall be regarded as the gravest crime. Article 25. Everyone shall have the right to freedom and inviolability of the person. No one may be arrested or taken into custody except on lawful grounds. Article 26. No one may be adjudged guilty of a crime except by the sentence of a court and in conformity with he law. Such a person shall be guaranteed the right to egal defence during open court proceedings. No one may be subject to torture, violence or any other cruel or humiliating treatment. No one may be subject to any medical or scientific experiments without his consent; Article 27. Everyone shall be entitled to protection gainst encroachments on his honour, dignity, and interference in his private life, and shall be guaranteed inviolability of the home. No one may enter a home, carry out a search or an examination, or violate the privacy of correspondence ind telephone conversations, except on lawful grounds ind in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. Article 28. Any citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to freedom of movement on the terriory of the Republic, as well as a free entry to and exit from it, except in the events specified by law. Article 29. Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of bought, speech and convictions. Everyone shall have the ight to seek, obtain and disseminate any information, except that which is directed against the existing constitutional system and in some other instances specified by aw. Freedom of opinion and its expression may be restriced by law if any state or other secret is involved. Article 30. All state bodies, public associations and officials in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall allow any citizen access to documents, resolutions and other materials, relating to their rights and interests. Article 31. Freedom of conscience is guaranteed to all. Everyone shall have the right to profess or not to profess any religion. Any compulsory imposition of religion shall be impermissible.

Chapter 8. Political rights

Article 32. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to participate in the management end administration of public and state affairs, both directly and through representation. They may exercise this right by way of self-government, referendums and democratic formation of state bodies. Article 33. All citizens shall have the right to engage in public life by holding rallies, meetings and demonstrations in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The bodies of authority shall have the right to suspend or ban such undertakings exclusively on the grounds of security. Article 34. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to form trade unions, political parties and any other public associations, and to participate in mass movements. No one may infringe on the rights, freedoms and dignity of the individuals, constituting the minority opposition in political parties, public associations and mass movements, as well as in representative bodies of authority. Article 35. Everyone shall have the right, both individually and collectively, to submit applications and proposals, and to lodge complaints with competent state bodies, institutions and public representatives. Such applications, proposals and complaints shall be considered in accordance with the procedure and within the time-limit specified by law.

Chapter 9. Economic and social rights

Article 36. Everyone shall have the right to own property. The privacy of bank deposits and the right to inheritance shall be guaranteed by law. Article 37. Everyone shall have the right to work, including the right to choose their occupation. Every citizen shall be entitled to fair conditions of labour and protection against unemployment in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. Any forced labour shall be prohibited, except as punishment under the sentence of a court, or in some other instances specified by law. Article 38. Citizens working on hire shall be entitled to a paid rest. The number of working hours and the duration of paid leave shall be specified by law. Article 39. Everyone shall have the right to social security in old age, in the event of disability and loss of the bread-winner as well as in some other cases specified by law. Pensions, allowances and other kinds of welfare may not be lower than the officially fixed minimum subsistence wage. Article 40. Everyone shall have the right to receive skilled medical care. Article 41. Everyone shall have the right to education. The state shall guarantee free secondary education. Schooling shall be under state supervision. Article 42. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of scientific research and engineering work, as well as the right to enjoy cultural benefits. The state shall promote the cultural, scientific and technical development of society.

Chapter 10. Guarantees of human rights and freedoms

Article 43. The state shall safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens proclaimed by the Constitution and laws. Article 44. Everyone shall be entitled to legally defend his rights and freedoms, and shall have the right to appeal any unlawful action of state bodies, officials and public associations. Article 45. The rights of minors, the disabled, and the elderly shall be protected by the state. Article 46. Women and men shall have equal rights.

Chapter 11. Duties of citizens

Article 47. All citizens shall perform the duties established by the Constitution. Article 48. All citizens shall be obliged to observe the Constitution and laws, and to respect the rights, freedoms, honour and dignity of others. Article 49. It is the duty of every citizen to protect the historical, spiritual and cultural heritage of the people of Uzbekistan. Cultural monuments shall have protection by the state. Article 50. All citizens shall protect the environment. Article 51. All citizens shall be obliged to pay taxes and local fees established by law. Article 52. Defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the duty of every citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Citizens will be obliged to perform military or alternative service in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

Part three. Sosiety and the individual

Chapter 12. The economic foundation of society
Chapter 13. Public associations
Chapter 14. Family
Chapter 15. Mass media

Chapter 12. The economic foundation of society

Article 53. The economy of Uzbekistan, evolving towards market relations, is based on various forms of ownership. The state shall guarantee freedom of economic activity, entrepreneurship and labour with due regard for the priority of consumers’ rights, as well as equality and legal protection of all forms of ownership. Private property, along with the other types of property, shall be inviolable and protected by the state. An owner may be deprived of his property solely in the cases and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law. Article 54. An owner shall possess, use and dispose of his property. The use of any property must not be harmful to the ecological environment, nor shall it infringe on the rights and legally protected interests of citizens, jaridical entities or the state. Article 55. The land, its minerals, fauna and flora, as well as other natural resources shall constitute the national wealth, and shall be rationally used and protected by the state.

Chapter 13. Public associations

Article 56. Trade unions, political parties, and scientific societies, as well as women’s, veterans’ and youth leagues, professional associations, mass movements and other organizations registered in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law, shall have the status of public associations in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 57. The formation and functioning of political parties and public associations aiming to do the following shall be prohibited: changing the existing constitutional system by force: coming out against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of the Republic, as well as the constitutional rights and freedoms of its citizens; advocating war and social, national, racial and religious hostility, and encroaching on the health and morality of the people, as well as of any armed associations and political parties based on the national or religious principles. All secret societies and associations shall be banned. Article 58. The state shall safeguard the rights and lawful interests of public associations and provide them with equal legal possibilities for participating in public life. Interference by state bodies and officials in the activity of public associations, as well as interference by public associations in the activity of state bodies and officials is impermissible. Article 59. Trade unions shall express and protect the socio-economic rights and interests of the working people. Membership in trade unions is optional. Article 60. Political parties shall express the political will of various sections and groups of the population, and through their democratically elected representatives shall participate in the formation of state authority. Political parties shall submit public reports on their financial sources to the Oliy Majlis or their plenipotentiary body in a prescribed manner. Article 61. Religious organizations and associations shall be separated from the state and equal before law. The state shall not interfere with the activity of religious associations. Article 62. Public associations may be dissolved or banned, or subject to restricted activity solely by the sentence of a court.

Chapter 14. Family

Article 63. The family is the primary unit of society and shall have the right to state and societal protection. Marriage shall be based on the willing consent and equality of both parties. Article 64. Parents shall be obliged to support and care for their children until the latter are of age. The state and society shall support, care for and educate orphaned children, as well as children deprived of parental guardianship, and encourage charity in their favour. Article 65. All children shall be equal before the law regardless of their origin and the civic status of their parents. Motherhood and childhood shall be protected by the state. Article 66. Able-bodied children who are of age shall be obliged to care for their parents.

Chapter 15. Mass media

Article 67. The mass media shall be free and act in accordance with the law. It shall bear responsibility for trustworthiness of information in a prescribed manner. Censorship is impermissible.

Part four. Administrative and territorial structure
and state system

Chapter 16. Administrative and territotial structure of the Republic of Uzbekistan Chapter 17. Republic of Karakalpakstan

Chapter 16. Administrative and territotial structure
of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 68. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of regions, districts, cities, towns, settlements, kishlaks and auls (villages) in Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Article 69. Any alteration of the boundaries of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions, the city of Tashkent, as well as the formation and annulment of regions, cities’ towns and districts shall be sanctioned by the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Chapter 17. Republic of Karakalpakstan

Article 70. The sovereign Republic of Karakalpakstan is part of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The sovereignty of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be protected by the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 71. The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall have its own

Constitution.

The Constitution of the Republic of Karakalpakstan must be in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 72. The laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be binding on the territory of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Article 73. The territory and boundaries of the Republic of Karakalpakstan may not be altered without the consent of Karakalpakstan. The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be independent in determining its administrative and territorial structure. Article 74. The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall have the right to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of a nation-wide referendum held by the people of Karakalpakstan. Article 75. Relationship between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan, within the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be regulated by treaties and agreements concluded by the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Any disputes between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be settled by the way of reconciliation.

Part five. Organization of state authority

Chapter 18. Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan Chapter 19. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Chapter 20. Cabinet of Ministers Chapter 21. Fundamental principles of local bodies of state authority Chapter 22. Judicial authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan Chapter 23. Electoral system Chapter 24. Procurator’s office Chapter 25. Finance and crediting Chapter 26. Defence and security

Chapter 18 is stated in accordance with the Law of the RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Chapter 18. Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 76. The highest state representative body is the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. This body exercises legislative power. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of two Chambers – the Legislative Chamber (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). Term of power of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be five years. Article 77. The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of one hundred and twenty deputies elected by territorial constituencies on multi-party basis. The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be a Chamber of territorial representation and shall consist of members of the Senate (senators). Members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected equally in groups of six – from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent by secret ballot at relevant joint sessions of the deputies of Zhokarga Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative agencies of state power of districts, regions and towns from among such deputies. Sixteen members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be appointed by the President from among most authoritative citizens with abundant practical experience and significant achievements in the sphere of science, art, literature, industry and other spheres of state and social activities. The citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan who have reached the age of 25 by election day, domiciling in the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan not less than five years shall be the deputy of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Requirements to candidates shall be determined by law. One and the same person may not be elected simultaneously a deputy of the Legislative chamber and a member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 78. Joint authority of the Legislative chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include: 1) adoption and amending of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 2) enactment and amending of constitutional laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 3) taking of decision regarding holding of the Referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan and appointment of the date of its holding; 4) determination of the guidelines of home and foreign policies of the Republic of Uzbekistan and approval of long-term projects; 5) determination of the structure and powers of the legislative, executive and judicial branches of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 6) admission of new states into the Republic of Uzbekistan and approval of their decisions to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan; 7) legislative regulation of customs, as well as of the currency and credit systems; 8) approval of the state budget of the Republic of Uzbekistan submitted by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan and control over its execution; 9) determination of taxes and other compulsory payments; 10) legislative regulation of the administrative and territorial structure, and alteration of frontiers of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 11) formation, annulment and renaming of districts, towns, cities and regions and alteration of their boundaries; 12) institution of state awards and honorary titles; 13) ratification of the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the formation and abolition of ministries, state committees and other bodies of state administration; 14) formation of the Central election committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 15) consideration and approval of a candidature of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan;

16) election of the Plenipotentiary of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for human rights, as well as his deputy; 17) consideration of the report of the Counting Chamber of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 18) approval of the decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on declaration of war in case of aggression against the Republic of Uzbekistan or necessity to fulfil treaty commitments on mutual defence against aggression; 19) ratification of the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on general or partial mobilization and on the declaration, prolongation and discontinuance of a state of emergency; 20) ratification and denunciation of international treaties; 21) execution of other powers defined by the present Constitution. Matters to be within joint authority of the Chambers, shall be considered, as a rule, at first by the Legislative Chamber, and then by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 79. The exclusive powers of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include: 1) election of the Speaker and his deputies of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the Chairmen and the Vice-Chairmen of the committees; 2) settlement of questions regarding deprivation of the deputy of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan of immunity upon recommendation of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 3) settlement of questions connected with the organization of its activity and the Chamber’s routine; 4) adoption of the resolutions on one or another matters in political, social or economic spheres, as well as on matters associated with home or foreign policy of a state.

Article 80. The exclusive powers of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include: 1) election of the Chairman and the Vice-Chairmen of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Chairmen and the Vice-Chairmen of the committees; 2) election, upon recommendation of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 3) election, upon recommendation of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 4) election, upon recommendation of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Higher Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 5) appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the State Committee for Protection of Nature of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 6) ratification of the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on appointment and removal of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies; 7) ratification of the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the National Security Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 8) appointment and dismissal, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of diplomatic and other representatives of the Republic of Uzbekistan in foreign states; 9) appointment and dismissal, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 10) adoption of acts on amnesty upon recommendation of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 11) settlement of questions on deprivation of the member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan of immunity on recommendation of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 12) hearing of reports of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Chairman of the State Committee for Protection of Nature of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank; 13) settlement of questions connected with the organization of its activity and the Chamber’s routine; 14) adoption of the resolutions on one or another matters in political, social or economic spheres, as well as on matters associated with home or foreign policy of a state.

Article 81. On the expiry of their term, the Legislative Chamber of and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall retain their powers until the newly-elected Legislative Chamber and the Senate are convened. The first sessions of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convened by the Central Electoral Committee not later than in two months after election to the Legislative Chamber and not later than in a month after formation of the Senate. The sessions of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convened during a period of sitting. The period of sitting, as a rule, shall begin on the first date of September and end on the last working day of June of the next year. The sessions of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convened as far as required; but such sessions shall be convened not less than tree times a year. The sessions of the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be legally qualified if not less than a half of a total number of all deputies and senators attend them. When constitutional law shall be adopted, not less than 2/3 of a total number of all deputies and senators must attend the session. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister, members of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Chairmen of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Highest Economic Court, the Procurator-General and the Chairman of the Board of the Bank may attend the sessions of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as sessions of their bodies. The Chairman of the Senate may attend the sessions of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its bodies, while the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber may attend the sessions of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its bodies. The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall sit on separately. Joint sessions of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convened upon adjuration of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, speech of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan about important matters of social and economic life, home and foreign policy of the country, as well as speeches of the Heads of foreign states. Joint sessions on other matters may be convened as agreed with the Chambers.

Article 82. The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall adopt resolutions regarding matters to be within their authority. Resolutions of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be adopted by a majority of the total voting power of the deputies of the Legislative Chamber or members of the Senate, with the exception of cases stipulated by the present Constitution.

Article 83. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Republic of Karakalpakstan in the name of its higher representative body of the state power, the deputies of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, the Highest Economic Court and the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right of legislative initiative; the subjects of the right of legislative initiative shall exercise such right by submission of draft law to the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 84. The law shall become legally effective if it is passed by the Legislative Chamber, approved by the Senate, signed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and is promulgated in official editions in keeping with the established procedure. The law passed by the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be forwarded to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan not later than ten days after the date of its passing. The law approved by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be forwarded to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan within ten days for signing and promulgation. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall sign and promulgate the law within thirty days. The law rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be returned to the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In case where upon repeated consideration of the law, rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Legislative Chamber shall approve the law anew by 2/3 of votes of a total number of deputies, the law shall be considered passed by the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and shall be forwarded by the Legislative Chamber to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for signing and promulgation. As regards law rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of may form, on an equal footing, a conciliatory commission from among the deputies of the Legislative Chamber and the members of the Senate to negotiate disagreements arisen. Upon acceptance of proposals by the conciliatory commission, the law shall be considered in the course of work. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to return the law with his objections to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In case where the law has been approved in early passed version by not less than 2/3 of votes of the total number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan respectively, the law shall be liable to signing by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan within fourteen days and promulgation. Promulgation of laws and other normative and legal acts shall be a compulsory condition for their enforcement.

Article 85. The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber and his deputies from its members. The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies shall be elected by a majority of the total number of deputies by secret ballot for a term of powers of the Legislative Chamber. The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be recalled before completion of his term of office by the decision of the Legislative Chamber approved by more than 2/3 of votes of the total number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber by secret ballot. The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall: 1) convene the sessions of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis and preside at the sessions; 2) exercise the general direction over a preliminary review of matters to be submitted to the Legislative Chamber; 3) coordinate the work of the committees and commissions of the Legislative Chamber; 4) organize the control over the execution of the laws and the resolutions passed by the Legislative Chamber; 5) direct inter-parliamentary relations and the work of the groups of the Legislative Chamber connected with international parliamentary organizations; 6) represent the Legislative Chamber in relation with the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, other state bodies, foreign states, international and other organizations; 7) sign the resolutions passed by the Legislative Chamber; 8) execute other powers stipulated by the Constitution and the legislation. The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall issue ordinances.

Article 86. The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect the Chairman and the Vice-Chairmen of the Senate from its members. The Chairman of the Senate shall be elected upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The representative of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be one of the Vice-Chairmen of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairmen of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected by majority of the total number of senators by secret ballot for a term of powers of the Senate. The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be recalled before completion of his term of office by the decision of the Senate approved by more than 2/3 of votes of the total number of senators by secret ballot. The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall: 1) convene the sessions of the Senate and preside at them; 2) exercise the general direction over a preliminary review of matters to be submitted to the Senate; 3) coordinate the work of the committees and commissions of the Senate; 4) organize the control over the execution of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions of the Senate; 5) direct inter-parliamentary relations and the work of the groups of the Senate connected with international parliamentary organizations; 6) represents the Senate in relations with the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, other state bodies, foreign states, international and other organizations; 7) sign the resolutions passed by the Senate; 8) execute other powers stipulated by the Constitution and the legislation. The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall issue ordinances.

Article 87. The legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect for a term its powers from the number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber committees to draft laws, conduct preliminary review of matters to be submitted to the Legislative Chamber and control the execution of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions passed by the Legislative Chamber. The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect for a term of its powers from the number of senators committees to conduct preliminary review of matters to be submitted to the Senate and control the execution of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions passed by the Senate. In the event of necessity, the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall form commissions from the number of deputies and senators to implement specific targets.

Article 88. The expenses associated with deputy or senatorial activity shall be reimbursed to the deputies of the Legislative Chamber and the members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The deputies of the Legislative Chamber and the members of the Senate working for the Senate on a permanent basis may not hold any other paid post within a term of their power, except scientific activity and teaching. The deputy of the Legislative Chamber and the member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right of immunity. They may not be prosecuted, detained, confined under guard or incur a court-imposed administrative penalty without the sanction of the Legislative Chamber or the Senate.

Chapter 19. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 89 is stated in edition of Point 1) of Article 1 of the Law of the RUz No. ZRU-89 dtd 11.04.2007. (Previous version)

Article 89. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the head of a state; he ensures coordinated operation and cooperation of the agencies of a state power.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 90. Any citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan who has reached the age of 35, is in full command of official language and has permanently resided in Uzbekistan for at least 10 years immediately proceeding the elections, shall be eligible for the post of President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. On and the same person may not be elected as President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for more than two consecutive terms. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected for a term o seven years. He shall be elected by citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of the universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. The Procedure for electing President shall be specified by law of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 91. During his term of office, the President may not hold any other paid post, serve as a deputy of a representative body or engage in commercial activity. The President shall enjoy personal immunity and protection under law. Article 92. The President shall be regarded as having assumed office upon taking the following oath at a session of the Oliy Majlis: “I do solemnly swear to faithfully serve the people of Uzbekistan, to strictly comply with the Constitution and the laws of the Republic, to guarantee the rights and freedoms of its citizens, and to conscientiously perform the duties of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan”.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 93. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall:

1) guarantee the rights and freedoms of citizens and observance of the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 2) protect the sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the Republic of Uzbekistan and implement the decisions regarding its national-state structure; 3) represent the Republic of Uzbekistan in domestic matters and international relations; 4) conduct negotiations, sign treaties and agreements on behalf of the Republic of Uzbekistan and ensure the observance of the treaties and agreements signed by the Republic and the fulfillment of its commitments; 5) receive letters of credence and recall from diplomats and other representatives accredited to him; 6) present to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan his nominees for the post of diplomats and other representatives of the Republic of Uzbekistan in foreign states; 7) present annual reports to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan on important matters of social and economic life, as well as home and foreign policy of the country; 8) form the administration and lead it; ensure interaction between the highest bodies of state authority and administration of the Republic; set up and dissolve ministries, state committees and other bodies of administration of the Republic of Uzbekistan, with subsequent confirmation by the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 9) nominate a person to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the post of Chairman of the Senate; 10) nominate a candidature of Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan to be considered and approved by the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and relieve him of his post; 11) approve, upon nomination of Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan, members of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan and relieve them of their posts; 12) appoint and dismiss Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies with subsequent confirmation by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 13) present to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan nominees for the posts of Chairman and judges of the Constitutional Court, Chairman and judges of the Supreme Court, Chairman and judges of the Higher Economic Court, Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Chairman of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Protection of Nature; 14) appoint and dismiss judges of regional, interregional, district, city, military and economic courts;

Point 15 is stated in edition of Point 2 of Article 1 of the Law of the RUz No. ZRU-89 dtd 11.04.2007. Previous version 15) appoint and dismiss khokims of regions and the city of Tashkent in accordance with the Law. The President shall have the right to dismiss any khokim of a district or a city, should the latter violate the Constitution or the laws, or perform an act discrediting the honour and dignity of a khokim; 16) suspend and repeal any acts passed by the bodies of the state administration or khokims; 17) sign and promulgate the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; the President may refer any law, with his own amendments, to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for additional consideration and vote; 18) proclaim a state of war in the event of an armed attack on the Republic of Uzbekistan or when it is necessary to meet international obligations relating to mutual defence against aggression, and submit the decision to the Chambers of the Oliy Majis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for confirmation within three days; 19) have the right to proclaim a state of emergency throughout the Republic of Uzbekistan or in a particular locality in cases of emergency (such as a real outside threat, mass disturbances, major catastrophes, natural calamities or epidemics), in the interest of people’s security. The President shall submit his decision to the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for confirmation within three days. The terms and the procedure for the imposition of the state of emergency shall be specified by the law; 20) serve as the Supreme Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan and is empowered to appoint and dismiss the high command of the Armed Forces and confer top military ranks; 21) award orders, medals and certificates of honour of the Republic of Uzbekistan and confer qualification and honorary titles of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 22) rule on matters of citizenship of the Republic of Uzbekistan and on granting political asylum; 23) introduce to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan proposals on issue of acts on amnesty and granting pardon to citizens convicted by the courts of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 24) form the National Security Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The President shall appoint and dismiss the Chairman of the National Security Service and submit the decrees on such matters to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 25) exercise other powers stipulated by the present Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The President shall not have the right to transfer his powers to state bodies or officials. Article 94. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall issue decrees, enactments and ordinances binding on the entire territory of the Republic on the basis of and for enforcement of the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 95. The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be dissolved by a decision of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan sanctioned by the Constitution Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan should any insurmountable differences arise within the structure of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate jeopardizing their normal functioning or should it repeatedly make decisions in opposition to the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as should any insurmountable difference arise between the Legislative Chamber and the Senate jeopardizing normal functioning of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. In the event of the dissolution of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, elections shall be held within three months. The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may not be dissolved during a state of emergency.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 96. Should the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan fail to perform his duties due to poor health confirmed by a certificate of a State Medical Commission formed by joint decision of the Chambers, an emergency joint sessions of the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis shall be held within ten days. The session shall elect acting President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among deputies and senators for a term of not more than three months”. In this case the general elections of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be held within three months.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 97. Upon completion of his term of office the President
shall be a lifetime member of the Senate.

Chapter 20. Cabinet of Ministers

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 98. The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall exercise executive power. The Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan, his deputies, ministers and chairmen of the state committees. The head of the government of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be an ex officio member of the Cabinet of Ministers. The Cabinet of Ministers shall be formed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Nominee of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be considered and approved by the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The members of Cabinet of Ministers shall be approved by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers shall provide guidance for the economic, social and cultural development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It should also be responsible for the execution of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decisions of the Oliy Majlis, decrees, resolutions and other enactments of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers shall issue enactments and ordinances in accordance with the current legislation. This shall be binding on all bodies of administration, enterprises, organizations, officials and citizens throughout the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall organize and mange activity of the Cabinet of Ministers; he shall bear personal responsibility for the efficiency of its work, preside at the sessions of the Cabinet of Ministers, sign its resolutions, represent, on behalf of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Cabinet of Ministers in international relations, as well as perform other functions stipulated by the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decrees and resolutions of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to be in the chair of the sessions of the Cabinet of Ministers, take decisions regarding matters to be within authority of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as abolish resolutions and instructions of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as instructions of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan based on Article 89 and Article 93 of the present Constitution. The Cabinet of Ministers, in its activity shall be responsible to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of Ministers shall tender its resignation to the newly elected Oliy Majlis. The procedure for the work of the Cabinet of Ministers and its powers shall be defined by the law.

Chapter 21. Fundamental principles of local bodies
of state authority

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 99. Kengash(s) of People’s Deputies led by khokims are the representative bodies of authority in regions, districts, cities and towns, except in towns subordinate to district centres and city districts). They shall act upon all matters within their authority in accordance with the interests of the state and citizens. Article 100. The local authorities shall: ensure the observance of laws, maintain law and order, and ensure security of citizens’, direct the economic, social and cultural development within their territories; propose and implement the local budget, determine the local taxes and fees, and propose non-budget funds; direct the municipal economy; protect the environment; ensure the registration of civil status acts; pass normative acts and exercise other powers in conformity with the Constitution and the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 101. The local authorities shall enforce the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the resolutions of the higher bodies of state authority. They shall also participate in the discussion of national and local matters. The decisions of the higher bodies on matters within their authority shall be binding on the subordinate bodies. The term of office of Kengash(s) of People’s deputied and knokims is five years.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 102. The khokims of regions, districts, cities and towns shall serve as the heads of both representative and executive authorities of their respective territories.

Part 2 is stated in edition of Point 3 of Article 1 of the Law of the RUz No. ZRU-89 dtd 11.04.2007. Previous version The Khokim of the region and the city of Tashkent shall be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan in accordance with the Law. The khokims of districts, towns and cities shall be appointed and dismissed by the khokim of the appropriate region, with subsequent confirmation the appropriate Kengash of People’s Deputies. The khokims of city districts shall be appointed and dismissed by the khokim of the city, with subsequent confirmation by the city Kengash of People’s Deputies. The khokims of towns subordinate to district centres shall be appointed and dismissed by the khokim of the district, with subsequent confirmation by the district Kengash of People’s Deputies.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 103. The khokims of regions, districts, cities and towns shall exercise their powers in accordance with the principle of one-man management and shall bear personal responsibility for the decisions and the work of the bodies they lead. Organization of the work and powers of khokims and local Kengash(s) of People’s Deputies shall be specified by the law. Article 104. The khokim shall make decisions within his vested powers which are binding on all enterprises, institutions, organizations, associations, officials, and citizens on the relevant territory. Article 105. Residents of settlements, kishlaks and auls (villages), as well as of residential neighbourhoods (makhallyas) in cities, towns, settlements and villages shall decide all local matters at general meetings. These local self-governing bodies shall elect Chairman (aksakal) and his advisers for a term of 2.5 years. The procedure for elections, organization of the work and the powers of self-governing bodies shall be specified by law.

Chapter 22. Judicial authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 106. The judicial authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall function independently from the legislative and executive branches, political parties and public organizations.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 107. The judicial system of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Higher Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Courts for civil and criminal cases of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, the Economic Court of the Republic of Karakalpakstan elected for a period of five years, Taskent city courts for civil and criminal cases, interregional, district, city courts for civil and criminal cases, as well as military and economic courts elected for the same term. Organization and procedure for the operation of the courts shall be specified by law. Formation of extraordinary courts shall be inadmissible. Article 108. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall hear cases relating to the Constitutionality of acts passed by the legislative and executive branches. The Constitutional Court shall be elected from political and legal scholars and shall consist of a Chairman, Vice-Chairman and judges including a representative of the Republic of Karakalpakstan. No member of the Constitutional Court, including the Chairman, shall have the right to simultaneously serve as a deputy. The Chairman and the members of the Constitutional Court may not belong to any political parties or movements, nor hold any other paid posts. The judges of the Constitutional Court shall have the right of immunity. The judges of the Constitutional Court shall be independent in their work and subject solely to the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 109. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall: 1) judge the constitutionality of the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions of the Chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the enactments of the government and the ordinances of local authorities, as well as obligations of the Republic of Uzbekistan under inter-state treaties and other documents; 2) conform the constitutionality of the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Karakalpakstan to the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 3) interpret the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; 4) hear other cases coming within its authority under the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The judgement of the Constitutional Court shall take effect upon publication. They shall be final and shall no subject to appeal. The organization and the procedure of the Constitutional Court shall be specified by law.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 110. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the highest judicial body of civil, criminal and administrative law. The rulings of the Supreme Court shall be final and binding throughout the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to supervise the judicial activity of the Supreme Courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, as well as district, town, interregional, regional and military courts. Article 111. Any economic and management disputes that may arise between entrepreneurs, enterprises, institutions and organizations based on different forms ol ownership, shall be settled by the Higher Arbitration Court and other arbitration courts within their authority.

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 112. Judges shall be independent and subject solely to the law. Any interference in the work of judges in administrating the law shall be inadmissible and punishable by law. The immunity of judges shall be guaranteed by law. The judges may not be senators or deputies of representative bodies of state power. The judges may not belong to any political parties or movements, as well as hold any other paid post, except for scientific activity or teaching. Before the completion of his term of office, a judge may be removed from his post only on grounds specified by law. Article 113. Legal proceedings in all courts shall be open to the public. Hearings in camera shall be only allowed in cases prescribed by law. Article 114. All court verdicts shall be binding on state bodies, public associations, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens. Article 115. All legal proceedings in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be conducted in Uzbek, Karakalpak, or in the language spoken by the majority of the people in the locality. Any person participating in court proceedings who does not know the language in which they are being conducted, shall have the following right to be fully acquainted with the materials in the case, to have the services of an interpreter during the proceedings, and to address the court in his native language. Article 116. Any defendant shall have the right to defence. The right to legal assistance shall be guaranteed at any stage of the investigation and judicial proceedings. Legal assistance to citizens, enterprises, institutions and organizations shall begiven by the College of Barristers. Organization and procedure of the College of Barristers shall be specified by law.

Chapter 23. Electoral system

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 117. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to elect and to be elected to representative bodies of state power. Every citizen shall have only one vote. Suffrage, equality and free will shall be guaranteed by law. The election of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as election deputies to the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and Zhokarga Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, to representative bodies of state power of districts, regions, towns and cities shall be held in the year of the expiry of constitutional term of their powers – on the first Sunday of the third ten-day period of December. The elections shall be held on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot. All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan under the age of 18 shall be eligible to vote. The members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected by secret vote at the relevant joint sessions of the deputies of Zhokarga Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative bodies of state power of districts, regions, towns and cities from among such deputies not later than a month after their election. Citizens who have been legally certified as insane, as well as persons in prison according to a judgement of the court may neither vote nor be eligible for election. Any other direct or indirect infringement of the citizens’ voting rights is inadmissible. The citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan may not simultaneously be elected to more than two representative bodies of state power. The electoral procedure shall be specified by law.

Chapter 24. Procurator’s office

Article 118. The Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the procurator subordinate to him shall supervise the strict and uniform observance of the laws on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 119. The.Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall direct the centralized system of agencies of the procurator’s office. The Procurator of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be appointed by the highest representative body of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and subject to confirmation by the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The procurators of regions, districts, cities and towns shall be appointed by the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The term of office shall be 5 years for the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Procurator of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and procurators of regions, districts, cities and towns. Article 120. The agencies of the Procurator’s Office of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall exercise their powers independently of any state bodies, public associations and officials, and shall be subject solely to the law. While in office procurators shall suspend their membership in political parties and any other public associations pursuing political goals. Organization, powers and procedure for the agencies of the Procurator’s Office shall be specified by law. Article 121. On the territory o! the Republic of Uzbekistan it is prohibited to set up and run any private, cooperative or other non-governmental agencies or their branches, independently conducting any operational work, investigations, inquiries or any other functions connected with combatting crime. The law-enforcement agencies may enlist the assistance of public associations and citizens to safeguard law and order, as well as the rights and freedoms of citizens.

Chapter 25. Finance and crediting

Article 122. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have independent financial, monetary and credit systems. The state budget of Uzbekistan shall consist of the national budget, the budget of the Republic of Karakalpakstan and local budgets. Article 123 The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have a single taxation system. The right to determine taxes shall belong to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 124. The banking system of the Republic of uzbekistan shall be directed by the Central Bank of the Republic.

Chapter 26. Defence and security

Article 125. The Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be formed to defend the state severeignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as the peaceful life and security of its citizens. The structure and organization of the Armed Forces shall be specified by law. Article 126. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall maintain the Armed Forces to ensure its security at a level of reasonable sufficiency.

Part six. Procedure for amending the constitution

The Article is stated in accordance with the Law of the
RUz dtd 24.04.2003 (Previous version)

Article 127. The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be amended either by laws passed by at least 2/3 of the deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan or by the Referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Article 128. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of uzbekistan may pass a law altering or amending the Constitution within six months of submission of the relevant proposal, with due regard for its nation-wide discussion. Should the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan reject an amendment to the Constitution, a repeated proposal may not be submitted for one year.